Illustrations in the 1305-14
Jami‛ al-Tawarikh
by Rashid al-Din.

Universal History

or Compendium of Chronicles

Ğāmi‛ al-tavārīḫ. Rašīd al-Dīn Fazl-ullāh Hamadānī


Edinburgh manuscript Or 20
City of Iram, f1r
City of Iram, f1r


Prophet Salih Produces a Camel from a Rock, f1v
Prophet Salih Produces a Camel from a Rock, f1v


Hushang, f4r
Hushang, f4r


Manuchehr enthroned with Rostam in attendance, f6
Manuchehr enthroned with Rostam in attendance, f6

Moses in the Bullrushes, f7v
Moses in the Bullrushes, f7v


Moses Hearing God's Voice, f8r
Moses Hearing God's Voice, f8r


Musa Slays the Giant 'Uj ibn 'Anaq, f9v
Musa Slays the Giant 'Uj ibn 'Anaq, f9v


Lohrasp enthroned with scribes in attendance, f12v
Lohrasp enthroned with scribes in attendance, f12v

The dying Rostam shoots Shaghad, f15v
The dying Rostam shoots Shaghad, f15v


Eskandar enters the Land of Darkness, f19r
Eskandar enters the Land of Darkness, f19r


Abd al-Muttalib and al-Harith about to Discover Zamzam, f41r
Abd al-Muttalib and al-Harith about to Discover Zamzam, f41r

Birth of the Prophet Muhammed, f42r
Birth of the Prophet Muhammed, f42r


Mohammad as a youth meets the monk Bahira
Mohammad as a youth meets the monk Bahira


Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel
Mohammed receiving revelation from the angel Gabriel

Mohammed positions the Kaaba
Mohammed positions the Kaaba


Mohammed and Abu Bakr on their way to Medina while a woman milks a herd of goats
Mohammed and Abu Bakr on their way to Medina while a woman milks a herd of goats

Night Ride of Mohammed on Buraq
Night Ride of Mohammed on Buraq


Mahmud of Ghazni in robe from the Caliph
Mahmud of Ghazni in robe from the Caliph


Mahmud of Ghazni crosses the Ganges
Mahmud of Ghazni crosses the Ganges


Mongols Besieging the City of Ūq, f124v
Mongols Besieging the City of Ūq, f124v


Besieged defenders of a town advancing to battle, f125
Besieged defenders of a town advancing to battle, f125

Battle Between Abu'l-Qasim and the Samanid Muntasir, f170r
Battle Between Abu'l-Qasim and the Samanid Muntasir, f170r

Muntasir Crossing the Jayhun, f170r
Muntasir Crossing the Jayhun, f170r


Kublai Khan on an elephant
Kublai Khan on an elephant


A siege
A siege


Mongols in battle
Mongols in battle


Mongols in battle
Mongols in battle


The Prophet Jeremiah
The Prophet Jeremiah


Khalili manuscript 727
Ilkhanid Mongols beseiging a city
Ilkhanid Mongols beseiging a city


Mohammed exhorting his family before the battle of Badr, f5a/66a
Mohammed exhorting his family before the battle of Badr, f5a/66a

Mohammed leading Hamza and the Muslims against Banu Qaynuqa, f6a/67a
Mohammed leading Hamza and the Muslims against Banu Qaynuqa, f6a/67a

Mohammed receiving the submission of the Banu Nadir, f8a/72a
Mohammed receiving the submission of the Banu Nadir, f8a/72a

Two Emperors of the Qi and Liang Dynasties, f14a/254a
Two Emperors of the Qi and Liang Dynasties, f14a/254a

The emperor Xuandi of the late Liang, f14b/254b
The emperor Xuandi of the late Liang, f14b/254b


The mountains of India, f21/261a
The mountains of India, f21/261a


The mountains between India and Tibet, with a female pilgrim in Indian dress, f22a/262a
The mountains between India and Tibet, with a female pilgrim in Indian dress, f22a/262a

Battle of the Pandavas and the Kauravas, from the Indian epic, the Mahabharata, f25a/265a
Battle of the Pandavas and the Kauravas, from the Indian epic, the Mahabharata, f25a/265a

The Execution of Jalal-al-Din Firuzshah II (r1290-96), the Khalji, sultan of Delhi, by his rebellious nephew, f27a/267a
The Execution of Jalal-al-Din Firuzshah II (r1290-96), the Khalji, sultan of Delhi, by his rebellious nephew, f27a/267a

The nobles of Kashmir enthrone a fakir as King Yashaskara (r939-48), f28b/268b
The nobles of Kashmir enthrone a fakir as King Yashaskara (r939-48), f28b/268b


Ravan, king of Lanka and king of the demons, lies dead before Rama, a scene from the Indian epic, the Ramayana, f30b/270b
Ravan, king of Lanka and king of the demons, lies dead before Rama, a scene from the Indian epic, the Ramayana, f30b/270b

Shakyamuni offering fruit to the devil, from the life of the Buddha, f34a/274a
Shakyamuni offering fruit to the devil, from the life of the Buddha, f34a/274a

The Grove of Jetavana, where the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, f36b/276b
The Grove of Jetavana, where the Buddha achieved Enlightenment, f36b/276b

Kushinagar, where the Buddha achieved Nirvana, f37b/277b
Kushinagar, where the Buddha achieved Nirvana, f37b/277b

Noah's Ark, f45a/285a
Noah's Ark, f45a/285a


Jacob, with three of his sons and his two wives, Leah and Rachel, f47b/287b
Jacob, with three of his sons and his two wives, Leah and Rachel, f47b/287b

Joseph, his robe torn by Potiphar's wife (Zulaykha), appears before Potiphar, f48a/288a
Joseph, his robe torn by Potiphar's wife (Zulaykha), appears before Potiphar, f48a/288a

Joseph and his brethren, f49a/289a
Joseph and his brethren, f49a/289a

Moses commands the Levites to behead those who had worshipped the Golden Calf, f52a/292a
Moses commands the Levites to behead those who had worshipped the Golden Calf, f52a/292a

The death of Moses on Mt Nebo, f54a/294a
The death of Moses on Mt Nebo, f54a/294a


Saul, abandoned by Jehovah, is defeated by the Philistines and falls on his sword, f56a/296a
Saul, abandoned by Jehovah, is defeated by the Philistines and falls on his sword, f56a/296a

Jonah and the whale, f59a/299a
Jonah and the whale, f59a/299a


The Jami‛ al Tawarikh (compendium of chronicles), was in four parts: (1) the history of the Mongols from Jenghis Khan to the death of Ghazan (2) a history of Öljeytü, followed by a long universal history from Adam, the biblical patriarchs and the ancient kings of Persia to Muhammad and the caliphs; (3) the 'Five Dynasties' of the Arabs, the Jews, the Mongols, the Franks and the Chinese; and (4) a geographical compendium.
The history of Öljeytü and the geographical compendium are lost, and the principle illustrated section appears to have been the world history, now in two different fascicles (one in Edinburgh University Library, the other the Khalili manuscript), which were haphazardly rebound in the 18th century.

Ilkhanid Light Cavalry in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
Ilkhanid Heavy Cavalry in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
Persian Cavalryman c1320, Persian Cavalrymen c.1335, Persian Cavalrymen c.1335 in Armies of the Middle Ages, Volume 2 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
Bedouin Tribesmen in Armies and Enemies of the Crusades 1096-1291 by Ian Heath, based on the Jami' al-Tawarikh
References:
Sheila S. Blair, A compendium of chronicles: Rashid al-Din's illustrated history of the world [=The Nasser D Khalili Collection of Islamic Art, vol XXVII], London 1995.
pp. 156-159, pp. 160-163, pp. 164-167, J.M. Rogers, The arts of Islam. Masterpieces from the Khalili collection, London 2010.
Min Yong Cho, How Land Came Into The Picture: Rendering History In The Fourteenth-Century Jami Al-Tawarikh, The University of Michigan 2008. PDF
More information on the Khalili Collection, MS. 727, Jami‛ al-Tawarikh of Rashid al-Din.


Other Illustrations of Ilkhanid Mongols and Successors in 14th Century Persia and surrounds

Persian Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers
Index of Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers