Ottoman Turkish Illustrations from:

Peter Mundy's Album, "A briefe relation of the Turckes, their kings, Emperors, or Grandsigneurs, their conquests, religion, customes, habbits, etc"

Istanbul 1618


1v Sultan Suleiman kneeling on small rug, holding fruit in his right hand, and a cloth in his left hand. He is bearded and wears a high turban and a coat with frogging.

2v Sultan Selim kneeling on small rug, holding a sceptre in his left hand fruit in his right hand, and a cloth in his left hand. He is bearded and wears a high turban and a coat with frogging.

3v Sultan Uthman (Osman) II standing looking to right of page. He has no beard and wears a high turban with two brush-like turban ornaments in jewelled gold holders. One faces up, the other down.

4v The Kizzlar Aga, a dark-skinned eunuch, standing looking to left of page. He holds a staff in his left hand. He has no beard and wears a high turban.

5v A royal household servant, standing looking to right of page. He holds a covered bowl with a high, wide foot before him. He is bearded and wears a high turban. His skirt is lifted and tucked into his sash.

6v A royal stable hand, standing looking to right of page. He holds a horse blanket or similar textile with a border decoration of arabesque on a contrasting ground. He is bearded and wears a high turban.

7v A royal companion, Aqa Larees, standing looking to left of page. He holds his hands clasped before him. He has a moustache and stubble on his chin and wears a hat with a long tail that rises high above his head and trails down his back.

8v A royal household dwarf, standing looking to right of page. He holds castanets? and wears a fur-lined sleeveless coat, a floppy dark hat, and a shirt decorated with ogives. He has a moustache and stubble on his chin.

9v A page destined for indoor service and educated in the palace (devsirme), standing looking to left of page. He folds his hands in front of him and wears a black kaftan with orange lining and silver fastenings over a silver robe with black ogive design and a gold thimble hat. He is cleanshaven and has long sidecurls.

10v A peyk, one of the special corps of personal bodyguards to the sultan who marched beside him on foot in royal processions, standing looking to right of page. He holds a halberd in his right hand and wears a mauve robe cut away in front, revealing a black and white striped skirt. A dagger is stuck in his sash and he wears a tall silver hat with a gold brim and plume in a gold plume-holder. He is clean shaven.

11v A solak, one of the bowmen bodyguard who attended the sultan in ceremonial processions, standing looking to right of page. He holds a bow in his right hand and wears a mauve sleeveless kaftan and a gold brimmed high white hat with very large aigrette and two plumes. He is cleanshaven.

13v A Seyis, a groom, or horse-keeper, of the royal stables. He wears a green kaftan, yellow boots and a tall white hat.

14v The Hamlaci Basi, chief of the Sultan's oarsmen. He wears an orange hat (barata) on top of his head, a muslin robe, blue knee-breeches, orange stockings, brown shoes and a blue girdle. He has a moustache and an unshaven stubbly chin.

15v The Mufti, the official expounder of islamic law. He kneels, wearing a light blue sleeveless kaftan with ermine collar and edging, over a silver robe. Large turban with green cap.

16v A Mulla, leader of public worship. He holds a book and wears a dark slate-blue kaftan with pink lining over a light blue robe. Large round turban in narrow folds. Brown boots.

17v A man who recites prayers. Dressed in a round brown hat (sikke) with a cloth around the brim, brown and green cloak, brown robe and boots.

18v The lieutenant governor of the emperor. Dressed in a high,white turban, kaftan with frogging, flowered sleeves.

19v The teskilatci, a chief secretary. He wears a white turban of triangular shape and pale blue kaftan, orange slippers and a silver robe.

20v A foot-soldier of the old corps of armourers attached to the Janissaries. Wearing a helmet with a stiff white aigrette in the plume-holder. Green tunic, white leg-protectors, brown shoes, Wearing a sword and dagger and carrying a matchlock. A cloth is wrapped around his head under the helmet, covering his ears and chin.

21v A sipahi (cavalryman) from Anatolia. He wears a dark mauve cloak, buttoned at the neck, a pale blue tunic, red trousers, high brown boots and a turban loosely wound over a red cap.A gold dagger is stuck in his red sash.

22v A Yeniceri, or Janissary. He wears the Janissary headdress, white felt with a gold brim and a plume-holder. Dark blue sleeveless kaftan, pale blue tunic, silver girdle, red trousers, brown shoes. He holds a staff.

23v A Rumeli sipahi, a soldier of Rumeli. He wears a red hat with a long brim with four ends and a plume, scarlet sleeveless kaftan with an ermine lining and with epaulettes. Blue tunic, red trousers and yellow boots. He carries a mace.

24v An Azeb, a marine. He carries a musket, wears a powder-horn and ammunition pouch on his girdle and a sword. Pale blue tunic, red trousers, white leg-protectors, black shoes, red cap with black brim and a gold cloth, striped red and green, and a plume.

25v A government courier or tatar. He wears a black tunic, high brown boots, scarlet trousers, blue girdle and a large round white head-dress with pointed red baton type cap. He has a bow in a case and a sword and is carrying a double-tailed whip.

26v A kapici, gate-keeper. He wears a gold-brimmed, white felt Janissary head-dress without a plume-holder. Dark green kaftan, pale blue girdle, brown shoes.

27v A Cavus basi, head of the ushers or corps of cavus. Black sleeveless kaftan lined in striped brown and white fur, mauve robe, red trousers, blue shoes and holding a staff. Head-dress similar to that worn by a solak with a large stiff aigrette and double plume in a holder.

28v A Seferli, a Janissary on campaign. Carries an axe and wears a black kaftan with yellow shoulder pieces, pale blue tunic, red trousers, white leg protectors, black shoes. Janissary head-dress with a plume in the plume-holder.

29v A Kapici basi, chief gate-keeper or head of the palace gate keepers. Wearing a blue sleeveless kaftan lined with brown and white striped fur, silver robe, white shoes. Holding a staff. Plain white turban.

30v A Cavus, messenger or usher. Wearing a high white turban, black sleeveless kaftan with brown and white fur lining, silver robe, yellow shoes. Carrying a green mace.

31v A Bekci, a night watchman carrying a club and a lantern. Wearing short-sleeved knee-length dark blue jacket, pale blue tunic, silver girdle, red trousers and high black boots.

31v A Mahzar, common serjeant or office of a court of justice who summons persons to appear in court. Holding a staff and wearing a round turan with a red cap, blue short-sleeved kaftan, sage green tunic, red trousers and yellow shoes.

33v An executioner, probably kassas. Short-sleeved knee-length blue jacket, pale blue tunic, red trousers, high black boots. Slit in the jacket for his sword; red trousers.

34v A Kahya, one of the baltici overseers in charge of farm-workers, gardeners, etc. Carrying an axe under his arm. Light blue short-sleeved jacket, blue tunic, mauve knee-length trousers, red stockings, yellow shoes. High white turban.

35v An Acsi basi, head cook of the Janissaries. Carrying a staff, blue kaftan tucked into his white girdle in front. Blue trousers, high black books, plain white Janissary headdress. Unshaven stubbly beard.

36v A Fakir, dervish wearing a round dervish brown hat with a white cloth around the brim, dark green cloak, brown sleeveless robe, yellow slippers, bare arms and legs. Unshaven stubbly beard.

37v An Acemi Oglan, conscript boy, though he appears to be a cushion carrier. Carrying a cushioin and wearing a pointed orange cap in the shape of a dunce's cap, blue kaftan with green lining tucked into his belt in front. Pale blue trousers, red stockings, yellow shoes.

38v A Sakka, water seller. Face with hooked nose, black beard. Wearing pale blue cape, mauve kaftan, brown trousers, high black boots. Carying metal cup and water skin with nozzle and tap. Turban with red cap and gold spike.

39v A baltici, road cleaner and porter. Wearing large, wide ankle-length trousers, black boots, blue short-sleeved jacket, green blouse, blue girdle. Big moustache with curly ends, stubble on chin.

40v A Bokcu basi, overseer of the scavengers or sweepers. Carrying a staff and long broom. Wearing a blue sleeveless kaftan with flaps, light blue tunic, white girdle, red trousers, high yellow boot and a high white turban.

41v A coban, a shepherd. Carrying thick club-like shepherd's stick, cased knife hanging from his belt. Wearing short white jacket and shirt, wide blue trousers, black boots, white hat with long brim divided into four ends. Unshaven stubbly chin.

42v An Arabian wearing a robe with black and white vertical stripes over a pale blue short-sleeved garment. Red trousers, yellow shoes, gold belt and buttons, red cap in a black turban with a gold, blue and red cloth around it. Wide sleeved undergarment.

43v A Serhos, a drunkard. He holds a cup of red wine in one hand and a glass flask of red wine in the other. Wearing a small red fez over untidy hair. Green short-sleeved tunic open at the neck, pale blue cloak, red trousers, yellow slippers, dagger in yellow girdle.

44v A standing woman. Wearing the tantura, tall head-dress, with white kerchief (yemeni) on it. Dark blue dress (entari) with pale blue lining, white robe, green shoes. Face deliberately rubbed out.

45v A seated woman holding a fan, one leg crossed, the other raised. She wears a short-sleeved red dress (entari), gold belt, broad white sleeves, high silver head-dress (tantura) with brown cloth (yemeni).

46v Hantuncuk, young woman of rank holding a gold wine goblet and a handkerchief. Blue sleeveless jacket (yelek) with black lining worn over scarlet green-lined dress (entari) White robe and trousers, yellow slippers, high silver head-dress (tantura) with white cloth (yemeni).

47v Woman wearing high pattens, possibly going to the hammam. She wears tall metal headdress (tantura), brown dress with short sleeves, blue girdle with jewelled clasp, white robe and trousers.

48v Woman wearing high brown pattens, high headdress (tantura) with a brown cloth. She wears a black short-sleeved dress, white robe with wide sleeves, blue girdle, and white trousers. Possibly on her way to the hammam.

49v Woman wearing light brown dress, gold belt, scarlet tunic, pale blue trousers with black design, white shoes. She wears a high headdress, tantura, with a mauve cloth decorated in gold.

50v A Persian youth wearing a red cloak with fur lining, a loosely-wound Safavid turban with red taj (baton), silver robe with black cloud design, black trousers, white boots.

51v A Persian woman holding a pomegranate in her left hand. She wears a white shawl over a blue tunic, mauve girdle and mauve trousers. His high headdress is pointed and has a white cloth extending from it.

52v A street vendor called a Sirkeci who sells vinegar in the bazaar and fish-market. He carries a tankard and has a skin of vinegar slung over his shoulder. He wears a black hat, white tunic, blue girdle, brown tights, black shoes with laced insteps.

53v A kurkcu or furrier. He wears a pale blue sleeveless kaftan, brown tunic, black hat gold belt, red trousers, and brown shoes.

54v A coloiero or Greek priest carrying a gold censer and a crozier with a cross-shaped top. He wears a black headdress with four crosses on it, light brown garment over a blue robe. White ruff, brown shoes, white girdle.

55v An Armenian hammal [khamal] or porter carrying a brown sack tied to his back. He wears high black boots, mauve tunic, blue sleeveless garment, blue and red turban, dark blue trousers, white girdle.

56v An Armenian woman who wears a dark blue outer robe with pale blue lining, silver and red girdle, white trousers, yellow shoes, white round hat with an attached cloth that covers her shoulders.

57v An Armenian youth 'out of Persia' who wears a pale blue kaftan open at front to a mauve tunic, red trousers, brown shoes, astrakhan hat, gold belt.

58v 'A Jew at Constantinople' dressed in a tall black hat, dark blue short-sleeved kaftan, lined in pale blue, brown robe, white girdle and black boots.

59v Woman standing with hands on her hips and arms bent outwards. Face and neck somewhat abraded. She wears a pale brown tall headdress (tantura) with long brown cloth, black short-sleeved jacket lined with brown and white striped fur, pale blue robe, gold girdle, brown shoes.

Source: British Museum



Other Albums:
I Turchi. Codex Vindobonensis 8626 of Bartolemeo von Pezzen, 1586 to 1591
Military Pictures from Hans Sloan's The Habits of the Grand Signor's Court, c.1620
Pictures from the Zamoyski Album, 1640-1648
Pictures from the Ralamb Costume Book, 1657

Other early 17th century Ottoman Illustrations
The Tarjumah-i Shahnamah (Translation of Firdawsi's Shahnamah into Turkish by Sharif Amidi). Copied by Darvish 'Abdi, 1616-1620AD
Sehname-i Nadiri, 1620s

Illustrations by Europeans:
Ottomans in De gli habiti antichi, e moderni di diverse parti del mondo libri due by Cesare Vecellio, 1590
Prints of Ottomans and Arabs made after Salomon Schweigger, 1608

Ottoman Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers in the 15th to 19th Centuries



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